Introduction of drilling tools(二)

Downhole power drilling tool
It is connected to the lower end of the drill pipe and goes down into the power machine along with the drill pipe. There are mainly turbo drilling tools and screw drilling tools.

① Turbine drilling tools rely on high-pressure liquid flow through the turbine to transform the liquid energy into mechanical energy on the central axis, driving the drill bit to break the rock. It consists of hundreds of pairs of turbine stators and rotors, bearings, central shafts, etc. installed in series in the casing. The turbine stator and rotor blades are bent in reverse. High-pressure mud flows in the skew direction of the stator blades, which strongly impacts the rotor blades and causes the rotor to rotate the central shaft. Turbo drilling tools are the main drilling tools used in the Soviet Union. They developed various This type of new-type turbo drilling tool is widely used in drilling at various depths and formations (including 10,000-meter wells already drilled), and other countries are also developing it.

② Screw drilling tools rely on high-pressure mud to pass through the stator and rotor channels, driving the rotor to rotate in the spiral channel of the stator, generating torque and driving the drill bit to break the rock. It is composed of a spiral rotor installed in the housing, a rubber stator bush with spiral channels, a rotating shaft, and bearings. It is a volumetric downhole power drilling tool. Its rotating speed is proportional to pump displacement, torque is proportional to pump pressure and drilling pressure, and the drilling pressure can be indirectly indicated by pump pressure. Due to the low speed, it is more advantageous to use a cone bit to drill.

Other tools
The stabilizer is commonly known as the centralizer, which is connected to the lower drilling tool assembly of the drill string to prevent deviation of the well or to drill directional wells, and is conducive to the smooth working of the drill bit. Shock absorbers are used to absorb shock and vibration loads generated during drilling to increase the service life of drill bits and other drilling tools. The key components are different types of shock-absorbing elements.

A tool that can accumulate elastic energy to produce a shock when the drill string is elastically stretched under tension, can be used to deal with stuck drill accidents and is conducive to safe drilling.

Salvage tools are used to salvage wells and special tools for handling underground accidents. Commonly used fishing tools include male cone, female cone, salvage tube, salvage spear, salvage basket, magnet salvage device, shoe polisher, safety joint, etc. When a stuck drill accident occurs, use a card measuring instrument to measure the pinpoint, and then use the explosion method to loosen the stuck drill thread. This method is very effective in dealing with stuck drill accidents.

Post time: 2020-06-25