Drilling tools mainly include wellhead tools and downhole drilling tools. Wellhead tools are tools for lifting and unloading drilling tools, such as tongs, elevators, slips, etc. Lifting tongs are used to screw up and down all kinds of downhole drilling tools. The elevator is used to suspend, lift and lower the drill string. The slip is used to catch the drill string and hang on the turntable.
Drilling tools include drill bits, drill strings, downhole power drilling tools, and tools such as stabilizers, shock absorbers, and jars.
Indispensable tools for breaking rock when drilling are mainly three types: roller cone bit, diamond drill bit and scraper bit: ① roller cone bit, which consists of drill body, claw, roller cone, bearing, water eye, etc. According to the structure of roller cones, there are two types of milling teeth and inserts. According to the structure of bearings, there are two types of sealed (or unsealed) rolling bearings and sealed (or unsealed) sliding bearings. The roller bit is suitable for drilling various formations and is currently used. The most extensive. ②Diamond drills were initially limited to hard formations, and their varieties and scope of use are increasing. Although the price of the drill bit is high, but the working life is long, if it is selected reasonably, a better economic effect can be achieved. ③The scraper bit has a simple structure and is easy to manufacture. The speed of drilling soft formations is fast, but the torque is large when drilling, which is easy to damage the drilling tools and equipment. In recent years, a new type of cutting bit is being developed, which is embedded in the base of the bit with new wear-resistant materials of different geometries. It can adapt to various lithological formations and can be drilled at high speeds. Its economic effect is increasingly significant.
The general name of all downhole drilling tools from square drill pipe to drill bit is composed of square drill pipe, drill pipe, drill collar, stabilizer joint and other various accessories. The function is to lift the drill bit, transfer the mechanical energy required to crush the rock to the drill bit, apply drilling weight to the bottom of the well, transport the washing fluid into the well and perform other downhole operations.
Post time: 2020-06-22